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Medical notes for Medical Professionals written and collected by Medical Professionals.

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Abdominal Distension
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Abdominal Distension

Various conditions can cause the distended abdomen. It is also described as ‘bloating’ among people. This is commonly caused by gas in the stomach and intestines. Conditions that cause Abdominal distension Ascites Intestinal parasite infection (coccidiosis, fasciolosis, giardiasis, hookworm:  ancylostomiasis and necatoriasis, Strongyloidiasis) Bowel obstruction () Toxic megacolon Abdominal or Pelvic mass Inflammatory bowel disease […]

Ranula
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Ranula

Ranulas are   that can be seen in the floor of the mouth results from an injury to the duct of salivary glands, usually the major salivary glands. Ranulas present as a swelling of connective tissue consisting of collected mucin. Ranulas may be asymptomatic.   Treatment Incision and drainage Ranula excision Complete excision of the ranula […]

Gram Negative Bacteria
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Gram Negative Bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria are a group of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method of bacterial differentiation

Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis	(Wegener’s granulomatosis)
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Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegener’s granulomatosis)

Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare multisystem autoimmune disease. Typically, the upper and lower respiratory tract and the kidneys are affected, but it may affect any organs. Small vessel vasculitis granulomatous inflammation of vessels Signs and symptoms VASCULITIS: FEVER – MALAISE – WEIGHT LOSS – ARTHRALGIA/MYALGIA Recurrent respiratory infection in adults Sinusitis Epistaxis Otitis media […]

Ankylosing spondylitis
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Ankylosing spondylitis

Chronic seronegative inflammatory arthritis primarily affects axial skeleton (sacroiliac joints and vertebrae) and peripheral joints.  Morning  stifness > 1 hour; imporves with exercise. HLA-B27 M > F Signs and symptoms Axial lower back pain stiffness of back Pain radiates to the buttock – persistant buttock pain painful sacroiliac joint Flattening of lumbar curvature Decreased cheast […]

Reactive Arthritis (Reiter Syndrome) | ReA
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Reactive Arthritis (Reiter Syndrome) | ReA

Reactive arthritis (ReA), formerly known as Reiter syndrome, is inflammation of the joints and tendon, often accompanied by inflammation of the eye’s conjunctiva or iris and the mucous membranes, such as those of the mouth and genitourinary tract. It is an auto immune Sero-negative arthritis which develops in response to an infection of the GI or […]

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
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Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects mainly the joints, especially small joints – synovium, but can affect systemically. The disease is caused by an autoimmune response against an unknown self antigen(s). RA is more common in women Unknown etiology Chronic poly arthritis symmetric, erosive synovitis PIP MCP Wrists Knees Ankles MTP C […]

Osteoarthritis
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Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis  – Degenerative joint disease (DJD). No inflammation. Destruction of articular cartilage and surrounding joint structures. The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. Asymmetric, mono / oligo articular involvement.Common joints being affectedCervicallumbosacral spinehipknee1st MTPDIP – (Heberden nodes) — Osteophytes —> Joint enlargementPIP – (Boucahrd nodes)1st CMC (base of thumb – squaring)*Proximal = Letter “B”; Distal = Letter  “H”ClassificationPrimary […]

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Anion-gap metabolic acidosis

High anion gap metabolic acidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis characterized by a high anion gap (a medical value based on the concentrations of ions in a patient’s serum). An anion gap is usually considered to be high if it is over 11 mEq/L. G — glycols (ethylene glycol & propylene glycol) O — […]