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Low hemoglobin concentration due to either decrease erythrocyte (hence decrease hematocrit) or increase plasma volume.

Female Male
Erythrocytes (RBC)(normal: 3.8 to 5.2 x 1012/L)(normal: 4.0 to 5.9 x 1012/L)
Hematocrit (Hct)< 36% (*normal: 36% to 45%)< 41% (normal: 41% to 50% )
Hemoglobin (Hb)<120 g/L (normal: 120–160 g/L)<130 g/L (normal: 135–180 g/L )
* Normal range varies depend on the hospital, country


  • Decrease Erythrocytes production (Myelodysplasia; Deficiency of Iron, Vitamin B12, Folate; Thalassemias )
  • Blood loss (Surgery, injuries, GIT causes & intestinal worms, Cancers, and menstruation)
  • Destruction of Erythrocytes (Hemolysis)
  • Hypervolemia

Common anemic symptoms

  • Fatigue ( tiredness or weakness )
  • Malaise
  • Dyspnea
  • Irregular heartbeats, palpitations
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Anorexia (loss of appetite)

Microcytic AnemiaMacrocytic AnemiaNormocytic Anemia
Iron Deficiency AnemiaVitamin B12 Deficiency Acute Blood loss / Hemolysis
Anemia of Chronic DiseaseFolate Deficiency Anemia of Chronic Disease
Sideroblastic Anemia