- Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) – Abnormal backflow of urine from the bladder into the ureters/kidneys.
- Bacteria in the lower urinary tract can easily be spread by reflux to the upper tract, leading to recurrent infection with potential scarring and renal dysfunction.
- Grade I – reflux into non-dilated ureter (results in urine reflux into the ureter only)
- Grade II – reflux into the renal pelvis and calyces without dilatation
- Grade III – mild/moderate dilatation of the ureter, renal pelvis and calyces with minimal blunting of the fornices
- Grade IV – dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces with moderate ureteral tortuosity
- Grade V – gross dilatation of the ureter, pelvis and calyces; ureteral tortuosity (twisting); loss of papillary impressions (severe hydronephrosis)
VCUG – Voiding cystourethrogram