Shaping Future Doctors, Knowledge for Medical Excellence

Turner Syndrome (gonadal dysgenesis)

Turner Syndrome 45,X

Turner syndrome (gonadal dysgenesis – 45,X) is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome. Signs and symptoms Girl with Turner syndrome before and immediately after her operation for neck-webbing – Wikipedia Image Short stature Lymphedema of the hands and feet of a newborn Broad chest and widely spaced nipples […]

Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegener’s granulomatosis)


Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare multisystem autoimmune disease. Typically, the upper and lower respiratory tract and the kidneys are affected, but it may affect any organs. Small vessel vasculitis granulomatous inflammation of vessels Signs and symptoms VASCULITIS: FEVER – MALAISE – WEIGHT LOSS – ARTHRALGIA/MYALGIA Recurrent respiratory infection in adults Sinusitis Epistaxis Otitis media Mastoiditis Rhinitis Nasal […]



Ranulas are  mucoceles that can be seen in the floor of the mouth results from an injury to the duct of salivary glands, usually the major salivary glands. Ranulas present as a swelling of connective tissue consisting of collected mucin. Ranulas may be asymptomatic. Treatment Incision and drainage Ranula excision Marsupialization Complete excision of the ranula with […]

UTI in children

Urinary Tract Infections are caused by bacteria in children. Infants, toddlers and younger children are more vulnerable to UTI if their urinary system is having structural abnormalities.

Vesicoureteral reflux

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) – Abnormal backflow of urine from the bladder into the ureters/kidneys. Bacteria in the lower urinary tract can easily be spread by reflux to the upper tract, leading to recurrent infection with potential scarring and renal dysfunction. Grading Grade I – reflux into non-dilated ureter (results in urine reflux into the ureter only) […]

Klinefelter syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more Malcolm Gin (photographer) X chromosomes in males. Apart from 47,XXY there also 48,XXXY and 49,XXXXY types exist. This is called as variants of Klinefelter syndrome. Klinefelter syndrome is a form of primary testicular failure, with elevated gonadotropin levels due to lack […]

A-a Gradient – Alveolar-arterial PO2 difference

A-a Gradient or Alveolar-arterial PO2 difference – measure of the difference between the alveolar concentration (A) of oxygen and the arterial (a) concentration of oxygen. The A-a Gradient can help determine the cause of hypoxia. Assesment of oxygenation valid only on room air increase with age Causes of increased (A-a) difference: COPD Atelectasis Pneumonia Pulmonary edema Asthma Pneumothorax ARDS […]

Reye’s Syndrome

Reye’s syndrome is encephalopathy combined with hepatic fatty infiltration which usually begins shortly after recovery from an acute viral illness, especially influenza and varicella (chickenpox) in a child who has recently had aspirin or salicylates.