Shaping Future Doctors, Knowledge for Medical Excellence
  • Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) – Abnormal backflow of urine from the bladder into the ureters/kidneys.
  • Bacteria in the lower urinary tract can easily be spread by reflux to the upper tract, leading to recurrent infection with potential scarring and renal dysfunction.


  • Grade I – reflux into non-dilated ureter (results in urine reflux into the ureter only)
  • Grade II – reflux into the renal pelvis and calyces without dilatation
  • Grade III – mild/moderate dilatation of the ureter, renal pelvis and calyces with minimal blunting of the fornices
  • Grade IV – dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces with moderate ureteral tortuosity
  • Grade V – gross dilatation of the ureter, pelvis and calyces; ureteral tortuosity (twisting); loss of papillary impressions (severe hydronephrosis)

VCUG – Voiding cystourethrogram

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