Shaping Future Doctors, Knowledge for Medical Excellence



Low hemoglobin concentration due to either decrease erythrocyte (hence decrease hematocrit) or increase plasma volume. ♀ Female ♂ Male Erythrocytes (RBC) (normal: 3.8 to 5.2 x 1012/L) (normal: 4.0 to 5.9 x 1012/L) Hematocrit (Hct) < 36% (*normal: 36% to 45%) < 41% (normal: 41% to 50% ) Hemoglobin (Hb) <120 g/L (normal: 120–160 g/L) […]

Introduction & Terminology of Anatomy


Anatomy is the study of the structure of the organisms and their parts. Study of the morphology of the human is Human anatomy. Etymology: Anatomy (Greek anatomē, ‘dissection’)  Human anatomy subdivided into: Gross Anatomy Microscopic Anatomy (Histology) Gross Anatomy is studying the structures with unaided eye, whereas histology is using microscope to study the structures. Gross Anatomy […]

Blood Cells

Hematopoietic Stem Cell

Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes), White Blood Cells (leukocytes), Platelets (thrombocytes) are the major types of blood cells. A blood cell (hematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte) is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.

X-linked disorders

X–linked disorders are caused by mutated genes on the X chromosome.  X – linked mutant genes are fully expressed in males, because they have a single X chromosome. Males are more severely affected by this disorder than females. Only one copy of the allele is sufficient to cause the disorder when inherited from a parent who has […]

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Infrequent reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus is common in healthy individuals. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) normally opens to release gas after meals. Gastroesophageal reflux Disease(GERD) occurs when stomach contents reflux, or back up, into the esophagus for prolong period and thus lead to esophagitis. GERD is common in healthy infants. More than half […]

Seronegative Spondyloarthropathies


Seronegative spondyloarthropathies are group of arthritis with negative rheumatiod factor. Ankylosing spondylitis Reactive arthritis Psoriatic arthritis Enteropathic arthritis Common Clinical Features Asymetrical arthritis associated with inflammation Family aggregation Seronegative (RF -) Absence of nodules



Osteoarthritis  – Degenerative joint disease (DJD).