Peripheral Blood film

A peripheral blood film (PBF) is the result of a laboratory workup that shows blood cells and other structures in the blood, which includes microscopically…

Anatomical Regions

The human body is divided by two major divisions: Axial Appendicular Axial ‘s major regions are: Head (Cephalic) Neck (Cervical) Thorax (Thoracic / Thoracis) Abdomen…

Anatomical terminology

Terms that are being used in Anatomy is Anatomical Terminology. They are made up of suffixes, prefixes and root words that are mainly derived from…

Erythrocytes

Oval biconcave disk, of size 6 – 8 micron. They lack a cell nucleus and most organelles. Abnormal shapes of the Red Blood Cells

Hematopoiesis

Hematopoiesis is the process by which blood cells are formed. It is a continuous process that maintains an adequate supply of blood cells in the…

Hematopoietic Stem Cell

Hematopoietic stem cells are found in the bone marrow of adults, especially in the pelvis, femur, vertebral bodies and sternum. All blood cells are derived…

Fragile X syndrome

Fragile X syndrome an X-linked disorder caused by expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat affecting the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X…

Investigations & Treatment of GERD

Diagnosis It is based on patient symptoms. 24 Hour pH Monitoring If diagnosis is unclear and PPI are not responding, 24h pH monitoring can be…

Signs and symptoms of Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Esophageal heartburn and regurgitation, often provoked by bending, strenuous activity or lying flat acidic taste in the mouth Waterbrash frequent belching Dysphagia, odynophagia Extra-esophageal Chronic Cough…

Causes of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

In healthy individuals, lower esophageal sphincter is contracted tonically. It relaxes when the food is being swallowed. Inappropriate relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter Reduced…

Enteropathic Arthritis

Arthropathy associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD: Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s Disease (CD)). An acute inflammatory oligoarthritis presents in some of the patients with…

Psoriatic Arthritis

Inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. Pain, swelling, or stiffness in one or more joints is commonly present in psoriatic arthritis. Distal interphalangeal joints (DIP) and…

Ankylosing spondylitis

Chronic seronegative inflammatory arthritis primarily affects axial skeleton (sacroiliac joints and spine) and peripheral joints.  Morning  stifness > 1 hour; imporves with exercise. HLA-B27 M >…

Reactive arthritis

Reactive arthritis (ReA), formerly known as Reiter syndrome, is inflammation of the joints and tendon, often accompanied by inflammation of the eye’s conjunctiva or iris and…

Conditions that cause Abdominal distension

Ascites Intestinal parasite infection (coccidiosis, fasciolosis, giardiasis, hookworm:  ancylostomiasis and necatoriasis, Strongyloidiasis) Gastroparesis Bowel obstruction (volvulus) Ileus Toxic megacolon Abdominal or Pelvic mass Inflammatory bowel…

Treatment

The goal of treatment is minimize pain and increase the quality of life. Presently no treatment completely cure the disease. non-pharmacotherapy Avoiding activities that overload…

Lab Test and investigations

normal CBC, ESR, CRP ANA and RF (-)ve Radiology Joint space narrowing Osteophytes Dense subchondral bones subchondral cyst

Signs and symptoms

pain short duration of morning stiffness (< 30 minutes) fatigue poor sleep joint pain increase with movement; relieved by rest joint crepitation on passive range…

Risk Factors

Age Female sex Genetic predisposition major joint trauma obesity stress repetitive use of joints (e.g. Farmers –> Hip joint)